Sharks belong to the bony fish family, and they have cartilaginous structures instead of bones, and sharks breathe through a series of five to seven gill slits located on either side of their bodies, and they have teeth arranged in multiple rows, and sharks lose their teeth regularly, but they regenerate constantly, The skin of the shark consists of several layers that help it move smoothly in the water, and the upper side of the shark in general is dark in color until it mixes with water from the top, and the undersides are white, or lighter in color, to merge with the light sea surface from below, which helps the sharks to Camouflage from enemies, and a feature of sharks also that they have the ability to smell, and distinguish the smell. Of blood in the water from miles away.
All types of sharks reproduce through internal fertilization, where the male has two appendages derived from the fins of the pelvis, and he inserts one or both of them into the female genital tract and deposits sperm inside the female, and after mating, the female shark lays the fertilized eggs, and hatches outside her body and there are other species that the eggs remain inside the female’s body until they hatch
The shark is a carnivore, and the shark feeds on fish, and large marine mammals, such as: dolphins and seals, and the shark eats turtles, seagulls, or even other sharks, and helps its teeth, and its very strong jaw. they. Able to tear and chew skin, bones and hard shells.
Types of shark
There are approximately 400 species of sharks, including:
- Whale shark: It is the largest species of shark, with a weight of about 34,000 kg, and a length of 19 meters, and feeds on small organisms such as: crustaceans and plankton.
- Basking shark: It is the second largest species of shark, weighing up to seven tons, and a length of about 12 meters, and feeds on small plankton.
- Mako shark: It is the fastest shark species, inhabiting temperate and tropical seas.
Threat to shark
These fish lived with dinosaurs and other ancient living creatures, and in addition to the many existing types of these fish, new species are discovered every year, and these predatory fish are necessary for the natural system, but these fish face multiple dangers and among these risks is overfishing. There are many types of these fish are threatened with extinction, such as sawfish, while sharks have been an important resource in the developing world for centuries, and sharks must be preserved in order to improve the resilience of water bodies, but there are some types of sharks that stand in the way of The face of shark conservation, where larger fish feed on smaller fish, is in addition to overfishing and increasing demand for shark meat and fins.
General shark facts
Some general facts about shark include:
- The body structure of a shark, like other cartilaginous fish, consists of entire cartilage instead of bone, and it cannot change the shape of its fins or bend them to the side of the body.
- The whale shark and its scientific name is the largest shark and the largest fish in the world, with a length of 17.98 m, and the smallest shark is the dwarf lantern fish, whose scientific name is (Etmopterus perryi), which ranges between (15-20) cm.
- The shark usually has 5-15 rows of teeth in each jaw, and most of them have 5 rows, and the reason for this is that its teeth do not have roots, so they fall out after only about one week, as the shark has rows of Teeth, and every day a row of them falls, to be replaced by a new row.
- Whale sharks can live to about 150 years, while most other species live between 20-30 years.
- The hammerhead shark is one of the strangest types of shark, and it has a head that resembles a double-headed hammer, with its eyes located on either side of the head.
- Sharks mature slowly, and reach childbearing age between 12-15 years. Many of their species give birth to one or two children at a time, and young sharks can live and feed themselves shortly after birth.